Listening is an essential part of interpersonal communication at the workplace, and it is often considered one of the most important forms of communication behavior. Employees' spend almost half their day listening to their interlocutors,... more
Listening is an essential part of interpersonal communication at the workplace, and it is often considered one of the most important forms of communication behavior. Employees' spend almost half their day listening to their interlocutors, such as their managers, colleagues, or their customers. However, despite listening' prevalence, most people, and most of the time, listen poorly, even though practitioners continually point out its importance to individuals and organizations. Moreover, listening has received relatively little attention in the field of organizational behavior (in both journals and textbooks). The poor state of listening is curious because as early as 1952, Carl Rogers, one of the noted fathers of modern clinical psychology, pointed out the huge potential of good listening to solve a multitude of organizational problems including poor leadership and management. Listening, according to Rogers, restores inner communication among parts of the self of the speaker, and as a result creates a more balanced person that operates more peacefully in the world. However, although Rogers' theoretical arguments received much attention in clinical psychology, they have yet to receive attention nor been systematically implemented in organizations. In this work, we discuss the Listening Circle paradigm, which was developed independently of the Rogerian tradition, as an intervention to improve employees' listening abilities. Furthermore, we hypothesized, based on Rogers' theory, that participating in the Listening Circle, and thus experiencing good listening, will reduce employees' levels of social anxiety, and thereby will make their work-related attitudes more balanced and less extreme. An empirical study supported our hypotheses.
1. Hunsaker PL, Alessandra T, Alessandra AJ. The new art of managing people, updated and revised: Person-to-person skills, guidelines, and techniques every manager needs to guide, Direct, and Motivate the Team. Simon and Schuster Inc; New York NY, USA: 2008.
2. Jones JE, Pfieffe JW. The 1974 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators. San Diego, CA: Pfieffer; 1974. Small Group Instructor Training Course (SGITC). 1998. By U. S. Army.
3. Gonzalez TD. PhD thesis. University of Phoenix; Arizona, USA: 2009. Impact of active listening training at a California state hospital: a quantitative study.
4. Weger HJR, Castle GR, Emmett MC. Active listening in peer interviews: the influence of message paraphrasing on perceptions of listening skill. International Journal of Listening. 2010;24:34–49. doi: 10.1080/10904010903466311.[Cross Ref]
5. Bauer C, Kathrin F, Renate MP. Introducing “active listening” to instant messaging and e-mail: benefits and limitations. IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet. 2010;7(2):1–17.
6. Robertson K. Active listening: more than just paying attention. Aust Fam Physician. 2005;34(12):1053–5.[PubMed]
7. Harvard Manage Mentor-coaching tools. Active Listening Self-Assessment. 2004. Available from: http://www.mheducation.ca/college/mcshane4/student/olc/4obm_sa_08.html.
8. Canadian Career Development Foundation. Circuit Coach, Helping Youth Get Ready/Self B.1.2 Active Listening. Available from: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/NewCoach/english.
9. McShane SL. Canadian organization behavior chapter 8: Communicating in organizational settings. Mcgraw–hill, Ryerson; Toronto: 2000.
10. Mishima N, Kubota S, Nagata S. The development of a questionnaire to assess the attitude of active listening. J Occup Health. 2000;42(3):111–8. doi: 10.1539/joh.42.111.[Cross Ref]
11. Kubota S, Mishima N, Nagata S. A study of the effects of active listening on listening attitudes of middle managers. J Occup Health. 2004;46(1):60–7. doi: 10.1539/joh.46.60.[PubMed][Cross Ref]
12. Keyser J. Active listening leads to business success. ATD. 2013;67(7):26–8.
13. Cohen S, Eimicke WB. The new effective public manager: Achieving success in a changing government. Jossey-Bass; San Francisco, USA: 1995.
14. Minema S, Tsutsumi A, Takao S, Nishiuchi K, Kavakami N. Supervisors’ attitude and skills for active listening with regard to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinate workers. J Occup Health. 2007;49(2):81–7.[PubMed]
15. Atwater E. I Hear you: A listening skills handbook. Walker & Co; Rev Sub edition; New York USA: 1992.
16. Rogers CR. Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. Constable; London: 1951.
17. Salem R. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict information consortium, editor. Beyond intractability. University of Colorado; Boulder, Colorado, USA: 2003. Empathic listening.
18. The text book for mental health promotion to workers - guideline and its explanation-Tokyo: JISHA (2001) Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association. :31–5.
19. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Available from: http://www.medscape.com/partners/niosh/public/niosh.
20. Leonard M, Graham S, Bonacum D. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13(Suppl 1):i85–i90. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2004.010033.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]
21. Keshtkaran A, Heidari A, Bastani P. Study of managers’ communication skills based on the staff’s view in shiraz university of medical sciences. payavard. 2012;5(4):41–8.
22. Makarem A, Movaffaghi Z, Hosseini F, Beyraghi N, Nabavi F, Khajedaluee M. Clinical Medical Teachers’ Competency of Active Listening in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education. 2013;12(12):935–46.
23. Motaghed Larijani Z, Vakili M, Gofranipour F, Mirmohammadkhani M. Effects of health education program on Behvarz’s interpersonal communication skills in Semnan University of Medical Sciences. koomesh. 2015;16(2):229–38.
24. Baghiyani Moghadam M, Momayyezi M, Rahimdel T. Communication Skills of department heads in shahidsadoughi university of medical sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education. 2012;12(6):448–57.
25. Axley SR. Communication at work: Management and the communication-intensive organization. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books, USA; 1996.
26. Khanifar H, Jandaghi G, Shariati F, Zarvandi N. Reviewing the communicative role of effective listening and commitment. Journal of Human Resource Management Research. 2009;1(3):147–70.
27. Wissow LS, Wilson ME, Roter DL. Pediatrician interview style and mothers’ disclosure of psychosocial issues. Pediatrics. 1994;93(2):289–95.[PubMed]
28. Fassaert T, van Dulmen S, Schellevis F, Bensing J. Active listening in medical consultations: development of the active listening observation scale (ALOS-global) Patient Educ Couns. 2007;68(3):258–64.[PubMed]