Essays Immigration Naturalization Service

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In 1994 Californians passed Proposition 187, also known as the "Save Our State" initiative. Fifty-nine percent of California voters passed Proposition 187. The proposition called for denying illegal immigrants public social services, publicly-funded health care services (unless emergency under federal law), and public school education at elementary, secondary and post-secondary levels. The proposition also called for various state and local agencies to report persons that were suspected illegal immigrants to the California Attorney General and the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service.

The California Attorney General would have been required to transmit reports to the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service and maintain records of such reports. The proposition also made it a felony to manufacture, distribute, sell or use false citizenship or residence documents. Californians who favored the proposition, believed that their states' economic problems were largely due to the amount of illegal immigrants that have come to California from Mexico. Californians also blamed illegal immigration for the increase in medical costs, as well as the lower standards of education. Those who favored Proposition 187 claimed that the "illegal immigration invasion" would ultimately "save our state." Many believe that welfare, medical care and educational benefits, are what attracts illegal immigrants to California and the United States. Proponents claim that because these "magnets" draw illegal immigrants to the state, access to such services should be cut-off.

They also claimed that opposition to the initiative is funded mainly by special interests, which reap the benefits of providing services to illegal immigrants, such as public unions and medical clinics. Proponents also believed that the federal government had been derelict in controlling the borders, so that responsibility fell upon the state itself, to "send a strong message that California will no longer tolerate the abandonment of the duty of our politicians." Opponents to Proposition 187 believed that the question is whether or not to provide public services to illegal immigrants, but rather what would be done to "beef up enforcement at the border." While opponents agreed that illegal immigration is a real problem, they say that 187 is not the solution. Not addressed in the initiative is border enforcement and cracking down on employers who hire illegal immigrants. Financially, they argued that combining the new costs of the verification requirement as required in the initiative, would be in the billions.

They had also pointed out the public health risk of denying illegal immigrants basic services, such as immunizations, which help control communicable diseases. California approved Proposition 187 in 1994, but federal courts declared most of it unconstitutional. In July of 1999, Governor Gray Davis and opponents of Proposition 187 came to an agreement that ended all the legal challenges to the voter-approved initiative. All that is left of the measure, will be a state law that outlaws manufacture and use of false documents to conceal illegal immigration status. I believe that Proposition 187 was a bad initiative to begin with. Proposition 187 claimed that it would stop illegal immigration and save the state of California billions of dollars each year.

In fact, in researching the proposition, it does nothing to stop people from coming into California. The implementation of identifying illegal immigrants and the consequences of enforcing the proposition would cost more than the bill supporters said it would save. Some have stated that if Proposition 187 had been implemented, it would have cost 10 billion dollars in the first year. It is difficult for me to even find this law sensible when the cost of enforcing this law would be astronomical. Proposition 187 would not save California from its current economic problems.

The verification process of a students' legal status would have required that school officials verify and investigate about 10 million people, and continue to do so for an indefinite period of time. In my opinion, schools that already suffer from cutbacks, would also have to face the burden of the cost and time required to complete such an enormous task, putting the schools in a greater uncompromising economical position. Over the years this would cost the residents several hundred million dollars of tax money, which should be invested into education and advancement of technology in the classroom. Another provision in the proposition, the denial of health care to illegal immigrants, threatened not only the health of those persons, but would have also effected the health of all the people around them.

I believe that the People of California have been led to believe that many of the states' economic problems are directly related to the immigrants who come across the border, whether legally or illegally. This type of promotion only furthers the prejudices that already exist. Obviously Proposition 187 is not the answer. I believe the answer lies in education, understanding, and eradication of poverty, not in ridding the state of immigrants.

Block, A. G. (1998, November). The Wilson legacy. (California Gov. Pete Wilson) (includes Gov. Wilson's political timeline).

California Journal, v 29 n 11, pp. 6 (5). Lennon, Tara M. (1998, Summer-Autumn). Proposition 187: A case study of race, nationalism, and democratic ideals. Policy Studies Review, v 15 n 2 - 3, pp. 80 (21). Zuckerman, Mortimer B. (1994, December). Beyond Proposition 187. (immigration policy) (Editorial) U.

S. News & World Report, v 117 n 23, pp. 124 (2). 1994 California Voter Information Guide. Analysis of Proposition 187 by the Legislative Analyst. (Internet) web Digital Equipment Corporation, 1994. Bibliography: save our state


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Research essay sample on Immigration And Naturalization Service Illegal Immigrants

US Citizenship by Natural

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US Citizenship by Natural

The United States is a nation of Immigrants. For centuries people have
come to the U.S. in search of prosperity, freedom and financial
success. By definition of the Microsoft Bookshelf Encyclopedia an
immigrant is a person who leaves one country to settle permanently in
another country or region to which one is not native. People immigrate
for different reasons -- A group of people may immigrate to another
country because of some conditions which make it difficult for them to
live in their home environment. According to Microsoft Bookshelf
Encyclopedia, the reason for immigration is often social for example,
population increases, defeat in war, desire for a better life through
material gain and the search for religious or political freedom. These
reasons have usually prompted many more immigrants to the U.S. than
natural causes have. The website of the Federation for American
Immigration Reform explains how the first great wave of immigrants came
to the U.S. In the early 19th century, large numbers of people from
Western Europe left their countries to escape poverty. Many of the
immigrants also came to escape religious persecution and political
oppression. By the end of the 19th century, the majority of the
immigrants were from Southern and Eastern Europe. After 1921,
immigration declined due to new and better conditions in Europe and to
limitations established by the U.S. government. The first law was
passed by the United States Congress in 1862, restricted immigration to
the U.S.. This law forbade American vessels to transport Chinese
immigrants to the United States. Later, in the 1800s, the U.S.
Congress passed acts which prevented convicts, polygamists, prostitutes
and persons suffering from contagious diseases to enter the U.S. In
1917, Congress passed an immigration law that required a literacy test.

Aliens unable to meet minimum mental, moral, physical and economic
standards were excluded form the U.S. as well. In 1921, a
congressional enactment created a quota system for immigrants, by which
the number of aliens of any nationality admitted to the United States
in a year could not exceed three percent of the number of foreign-born
residents of that nationality living in the United States. It would
seem that the number would be quite small, however, the year was 1919
and the majority of the U.S. population was foreign born. In 1924, the
basic immigration quotas were changed to a system based on the
desirability of the different nationalities. A congressional act of
1943 repealed the laws keeping the Chinese from entering the United
States.

(Microsoft Bookshelf Encyclopedia) One will probably agree that it is

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important that every nation controls the flow of people who enter and
exit. To this extent, the United States has an agency which controls
and regulates these events. The Immigration and Naturalization Service
will determine how many people may enter, seek employment, and settle
within the U.S. Territory without altering the opportunities for U.S.
Citizens or Permanent Residents to develop their own lives. The INS
agency of the United States Department of Justice is empowered to
administer federal laws relating to the admission, exclusion,
deportation, and naturalization of aliens. The agency investigates the
qualifications of applicants for citizenship and provides public
schools with materials required for educating candidates for
citizenship. Another duty of the INS is to patrol the borders of the
United States to prevent the illegal entry of aliens. The agency also
registers aliens residing in the country. ( Encarta Encyclopedia
article on immigration, http://www.usdoj.gov/ins ) Before a person can
apply for Citizenship in the United States, one has to be a lawful,
permanent resident for five years. In the case of permanent residency
that has been acquired through marriage to a U.S. citizen the time of
residency is reduced to three years before an application for
citizenship can be made assuming the person continues to be married to
that U.S. citizen. According to the Immigration and Naturalization
Service, there are six other ways to obtain permanent residency besides
through marriage. (1) Qualifying persons may obtain a visa based on
employment and on special abilities the person my possess. (2) A
person may obtain a visa through a family member that already is a
citizen or permanent resident. (3) The INS holds an annual lottery in
which some 50,000 visas are given out. (4) Persons may obtain a visa
based on religious work they perform in the US. (5) Refugees seeking
asylum may obtain visas. (6) Persons who are willing to invest in a
US based business that will employ at least 11 workers will qualify for
permanent residency as well. A person may also apply for
naturalization if he or she is under 18 and may automatically become a
citizen when their parents naturalize. The fee for filing for
Citizenship is $225 and it is payable to Immigration and Naturalization
Service. Further information may be obtained through your local
Immigration and Naturalization Service Center. The Siskind^s Visalaw
website warns that if you have decided to live in the United States for
an indefinite period you should comply with U.S. Immigration laws and
procedures, as it would make it really difficult to obtain citizenship
or just even residency. The site also mentions that it is usually very
difficult to qualify for permanent residency. Siskind^s Visalaw website
also warns to submit a complete and accurate application form with all
the necessary attachments and requirements. Also one must insure that
the application is submitted to the correct Immigration Office.

Advise is given to speak with a reputable Immigration Attorney,
browsing through Immigrations books at the library, or "surfing the
net" etc., will likely inform on ways to obtain residency. Those who
meet the above qualifications are issued Immigrant visas for residence
in the United States. (Siskind, Susser, Haas & Devine) A person who
desires to be naturalized as a citizen of the United States may obtain
the necessary application form, as well as detailed information, from
the nearest office of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, or
from the clerk of a court handling naturalization cases. An applicant
must be at least 18 years old and must have been a lawful resident of
the United States continuously for 5 years. Again for husbands and
wives of U.S. citizens, the period is 3 years in most instances.

Special provisions apply to certain veterans of the armed forces. An
applicant must have been physically present in the country for at least
half of the required 5 years^ residence. Every applicant for
naturalization must: (1) demonstrate an understanding of the English
language, including an ability to read, write, and speak words in
ordinary usage in English (persons physically unable to do so and
persons who, on the examination date, are over 55 years of age and have
been lawful permanent residents of the United States for 15 years or
more, or who are over 50 and have been residents 20 or more years, are
exempt); (2) have been a person of good moral character, attached to
the principles of the Constitution, and well disposed to the good order
and happiness of the United States for 5 years just before filing the
petition or for whatever other period of residence is required in the
particular case and continue to be such a person until admitted to
citizenship; and (3) demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the
fundamentals of the history, and the principles and form of government,
of the United States. This can be done at private, designated testing
entities or at the interview before an immigration examiner. At the
interview the applicant may be represented by a lawyer or social
service agency. If conditions are favorable, and the application is
approved and your interview is successful one will be required to take
an oath to the United States in order to become a citizen. In the
swearing ceremony conducted administratively the following oath of
allegiance is given: I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and
entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign
prince, potentate, state or sovereignty, to whom or which I have
heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend
the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all
enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and
allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United
States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant
service in the armed forces of the United States when required by the
law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian
direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation
freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me
God. (American Immigration Center www.us-immigration.com/do.htm,
U.S.Immigration and Naturalization Services www.ins.usdoj.gov/law, A
PRACTICAL GUIDE TO IMMIGRATING TO THE U.S.@
http://shusterman.com/homepage.html, Chang & Boos Attorneys @
www.americanlaw.com/info.html,) Needless to say the U.S. is a nation of
Immigrants. Even though some of the proceedings might seem confusing
and complicated there is a lot more detail to all the steps than one
could imagine, and it certainly would provide for many more pages of
information. So far the immigration agencies in the U.S. has served
well. Even though changes and improvements could have been made it is
amazing that the system has worked so well considering the large number
of applicants each year and the budget the INS has to work with. Over
all the U.S. is the most popular country to immigrants.



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