AP Biology Name _____ CJ Olson __________ Chapter 6 Guided Reading Assignment 1. What is resolving power and why is it important in biology? a. Resolving power, or resolution, is the measure of clarity of an object. It is important to biology because we would not be able to see the structure of certain objects if it was not at optimal resolving power. 2. How does an electron microscope work and what does is the difference between a scanning and transmission electron microscope? a. An electron microscope focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen. b. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is commonly used to analyze the surface of an object, using an electron beam to scan its surface. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) sends the electron beam through the specimen, allowing it to see the internal structure. 3. Describe the process and purpose of cell fractionation. a. The purpose of cell fractionation is to isolate cell components for better research. b. Cell tissue is placed in a centrifuge where x1000 gravity or more is applied, isolating the cell parts. 4. Label the prokaryotic cell below – list structure and function. 5. Why is surface area to volume such an important concept as it applies to the size of a cell? Size and function are related. More size means the surface area:volume ratio increases More surface area leads to more diffusion and osmosis, and cells are only equipped to handle so much. 1
AP BiologyName: Danielle WilderChapter 6 Guided Reading Assignment1. Contrast the catabolic and anabolic pathways.Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules, and catabolicrelease energy2. Define the following terms: these terms and concepts are critical – they would be “great” quiz words.a. Energy: capacity to cause changeb. Kinetic energy: associated with relative motion of objectsc.Heat/thermal energy: kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or moleculesd. Chemical energy:potential energy available for release in a chemical reactione. Thermodynamics: study of energy transformations that occur in a collection ofmatterf.First Law of Thermodynamics: energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyedg. Second Law of Thermodynamics: every energy transfer/transformation increases the disorder of the universeh. Free Energy: measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when the temperature is rightContrast exergonic and endergonic reactions in terms of: free energy, stability, capacity to do work.Exergonic produces free energy and occurs spontaneously.Endergonic reactions absorb free energy from its surroundings.Exergonic is more stable and less work capacity.Endergonic is less stable and greater work capacity.