Bibtex Bibliography In Different Directory 411

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For any academic/research writing, incorporating references into a document is an important task. Fortunately, LaTeX has a variety of features that make dealing with references much simpler, including built-in support for citing references. However, a much more powerful and flexible solution is achieved thanks to an auxiliary tool called BibTeX (which comes bundled as standard with LaTeX). Recently, BibTeX has been succeeded by BibLaTeX, a tool configurable within LaTeX syntax.

BibTeX provides for the storage of all references in an external, flat-file database. (BibLaTeX uses this same syntax.) This database can be referenced in any LaTeX document, and citations made to any record that is contained within the file. This is often more convenient than embedding them at the end of every document written; a centralized bibliography source can be linked to as many documents as desired (write once, read many!). Of course, bibliographies can be split over as many files as one wishes, so there can be a file containing sources concerning topic A () and another concerning topic B (). When writing about topic AB, both of these files can be linked into the document (perhaps in addition to sources specific to topic AB).

Embedded system[edit]

If you are writing only one or two documents and aren't planning on writing more on the same subject for a long time, you might not want to waste time creating a database of references you are never going to use. In this case you should consider using the basic and simple bibliography support that is embedded within LaTeX.

LaTeX provides an environment called that you have to use where you want the bibliography; that usually means at the very end of your document, just before the command. Here is a practical example:

\begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{lamport94} Leslie Lamport, \textit{\LaTeX: a document preparation system}, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts, 2nd edition, 1994. \end{thebibliography}

OK, so what is going on here? The first thing to notice is the establishment of the environment. is a keyword that tells LaTeX to recognize everything between the begin and end tags as data for the bibliography. The mandatory argument, which I supplied after the begin statement, is telling LaTeX how wide the item label will be when printed. Note however, that the number itself is not the parameter, but the number of digits is. Therefore, I am effectively telling LaTeX that I will only need reference labels of one character in length, which ultimately means no more than nine references in total. If you want more than nine, then input any two-digit number, such as '56' which allows up to 99 references.

Next is the actual reference entry itself. This is prefixed with the command. The cite_key should be a unique identifier for that particular reference, and is often some sort of mnemonic consisting of any sequence of letters, numbers and punctuation symbols (although not a comma). I often use the surname of the first author, followed by the last two digits of the year (hence lamport94). If that author has produced more than one reference for a given year, then I add letters after, 'a', 'b', etc. But, you should do whatever works for you. Everything after the key is the reference itself. You need to type it as you want it to be presented. I have put the different parts of the reference, such as author, title, etc., on different lines for readability. These linebreaks are ignored by LaTeX. The command formats the title properly in italics.

Citations[edit]

To actually cite a given document is very easy. Go to the point where you want the citation to appear, and use the following: , where the cite_key is that of the bibitem you wish to cite. When LaTeX processes the document, the citation will be cross-referenced with the bibitems and replaced with the appropriate number citation. The advantage here, once again, is that LaTeX looks after the numbering for you. If it were totally manual, then adding or removing a reference would be a real chore, as you would have to re-number all the citations by hand.

Instead of WYSIWYG editors, typesetting systems like \TeX{} or \LaTeX{}\cite{lamport94} can be used.

Referring more specifically[edit]

If you want to refer to a certain page, figure or theorem in a text book, you can use the arguments to the command:

\cite[chapter, p.~215]{citation01}

The argument, "p. 215", will show up inside the same brackets. Note the tilde in [p.~215], which replaces the end-of-sentence spacing with a non-breakable inter-word space. This non-breakable inter-word space is inserted because the end-of-sentence spacing would be too wide, and "p." should not be separated from the page number.

Multiple citations[edit]

When a sequence of multiple citations is needed, you should use a single command. The citations are then separated by commas. Here's an example:

\cite{citation01,citation02,citation03}

The result will then be shown as citations inside the same brackets, depending on the citation style.

Bibliography styles[edit]

There are several different ways to format lists of bibliographic references and the citations to them in the text. These are called citation styles, and consist of two parts: the format of the abbreviated citation (i.e. the marker that is inserted into the text to identify the entry in the list of references) and the format of the corresponding entry in the list of references, which includes full bibliographic details.

Abbreviated citations can be of two main types: numbered or textual. Numbered citations (also known as the Vancouver referencing system) are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and consist in Arabic numerals in parentheses (1), square brackets [1], superscript1, or a combination thereof[1]. Textual citations (also known as the Harvard referencing system) use the author surname and (usually) the year as the abbreviated form of the citation, which is normally fully (Smith 2008) or partially enclosed in parenthesis, as in Smith (2008). The latter form allows the citation to be integrated in the sentence it supports.


Below you can see three of the styles available with LaTeX:

Here are some more often used styles:

Style NameAuthor Name FormatReference FormatSorting
plainHomer Jay Simpson#ID#by author
unsrtHomer Jay Simpson#ID#as referenced
abbrvH. J. Simpson#ID#by author
alphaHomer Jay SimpsonSim95by author
abstractHomer Jay SimpsonSimpson-1995a
acmSimpson, H. J.#ID#
authordate1Simpson, Homer JaySimpson, 1995
apaciteSimpson, H. J. (1995)Simpson1995
namedHomer Jay SimpsonSimpson 1995

However, keep in mind that you will need to use the natbib package to use most of these.

No cite[edit]

If you only want a reference to appear in the bibliography, but not where it is referenced in the main text, then the command can be used, for example:

Lamport showed in 1995 something... \nocite{lamport95}.

A special version of the command, , includes all entries from the database, whether they are referenced in the document or not.

Natbib[edit]

Citation commandOutput

Goossens et al. (1993)
(Goossens et al., 1993)

Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin (1993)
(Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin, 1993)

Goossens et al.
Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin

1993
(1993)

Goossens et al. 1993
Goossens et al., 1993
(priv. comm.)

Using the standard LaTeX bibliography support, you will see that each reference is numbered and each citation corresponds to the numbers. The numeric style of citation is quite common in scientific writing. In other disciplines, the author-year style, e.g., (Roberts, 2003), such as Harvard is preferred. A discussion about which is best will not occur here, but a possible way to get such an output is by the package. In fact, it can supersede LaTeX's own citation commands, as Natbib allows the user to easily switch between Harvard or numeric.

The first job is to add the following to your preamble in order to get LaTeX to use the Natbib package:

\usepackage[options]{natbib}

Also, you need to change the bibliography style file to be used, so edit the appropriate line at the bottom of the file so that it reads: . Once done, it is basically a matter of altering the existing commands to display the type of citation you want.

StyleSourceDescription
plainnatProvidednatbib-compatible version of plain
abbrvnatProvidednatbib-compatible version of abbrv
unsrtnatProvidednatbib-compatible version of unsrt
apsrevREVTeX 4 home pagenatbib-compatible style for Physical Review journals
rmpapsREVTeX 4 home pagenatbib-compatible style for Review of Modern Physics journals
IEEEtranNTeX Catalogue entrynatbib-compatible style for IEEE publications
achemsoTeX Catalogue entrynatbib-compatible style for American Chemical Society journals
rscTeX Catalogue entrynatbib-compatible style for Royal Society of Chemistry journals

Customization[edit]

OptionMeaning
 :  :  : Parentheses () (default), square brackets [], curly braces {} or angle brackets <>
 : multiple citations are separated by semi-colons (default) or commas
 :  : author year style citations (default), numeric citations or superscripted numeric citations
 : multiple citations are sorted into the order in which they appear in the references section or also compressing multiple numeric citations where possible
the first citation of any reference will use the starred variant (full author list), subsequent citations will use the abbreviated et al. style
for use with the chapterbib package. redefines \thebibliography to issue \section* instead of \chapter*
keeps all the authors’ names in a citation on one line to fix some hyperref problems - causes overfull hboxes

The main commands simply add a t for 'textual' or p for 'parenthesized', to the basic command. You will also notice how Natbib by default will compress references with three or more authors to the more concise 1st surname et al version. By adding an asterisk (*), you can override this default and list all authors associated with that citation. There are some other specialized commands that Natbib supports, listed in the table here. Keep in mind that for instance does not support and will automatically choose between all authors and et al..

The final area that I wish to cover about Natbib is customizing its citation style. There is a command called that can be used to override the defaults and change certain settings. For example, I have put the following in the preamble:

\bibpunct{(}{)}{;}{a}{,}{,}

The command requires six mandatory parameters.

  1. The symbol for the opening bracket.
  2. The symbol for the closing bracket.
  3. The symbol that appears between multiple citations.
  4. This argument takes a letter:
    • n - numerical style.
    • s - numerical superscript style.
    • any other letter - author-year style.
  5. The punctuation to appear between the author and the year (in parenthetical case only).
  6. The punctuation used between years, in multiple citations when there is a common author. e.g., (Chomsky 1956, 1957). If you want an extra space, then you need .

Some of the options controlled by are also accessible by passing options to the natbib package when it is loaded. These options also allow some other aspect of the bibliography to be controlled, and can be seen in the table (right).

So as you can see, this package is quite flexible, especially as you can easily switch between different citation styles by changing a single parameter. Do have a look at the Natbib manual, it's a short document and you can learn even more about how to use it.

BibTeX[edit]

I have previously introduced the idea of embedding references at the end of the document, and then using the command to cite them within the text. In this tutorial, I want to do a little better than this method, as it's not as flexible as it could be. I will concentrate on using BibTeX.

A BibTeX database is stored as a .bib file. It is a plain text file, and so can be viewed and edited easily. The structure of the file is also quite simple. An example of a BibTeX entry:

@article{greenwade93,author="George D. Greenwade",title="The {C}omprehensive {T}ex {A}rchive {N}etwork ({CTAN})",year="1993",journal="TUGBoat",volume="14",number="3",pages="342--351"}

Each entry begins with the declaration of the reference type, in the form of . BibTeX knows of practically all types you can think of, common ones are: book, article, and for papers presented at conferences, there is inproceedings. In this example, I have referred to an article within a journal.

After the type, you must have a left curly brace '' to signify the beginning of the reference attributes. The first one follows immediately after the brace, which is the citation key, or the BibTeX key. This key must be unique for all entries in your bibliography. It is this identifier that you will use within your document to cross-reference it to this entry. It is up to you as to how you wish to label each reference, but there is a loose standard in which you use the author's surname, followed by the year of publication. This is the scheme that I use in this tutorial.

Next, it should be clear that what follows are the relevant fields and data for that particular reference. The field names on the left are BibTeX keywords. They are followed by an equals sign (=) where the value for that field is then placed. BibTeX expects you to explicitly label the beginning and end of each value. I personally use quotation marks ("), however, you also have the option of using curly braces ('{', '}'). But as you will soon see, curly braces have other roles, within attributes, so I prefer not to use them for this job as they can get more confusing. A notable exception is when you want to use characters with umlauts (ü, ö, etc), since their notation is in the format , and the quotation mark will close the one opening the field, causing an error in the parsing of the reference. Using in the preamble to the source file can get round this, as the accented characters can just be stored in the file without any need for special markup. This allows a consistent format to be kept throughout the file, avoiding the need to use braces when there are umlauts to consider.

Remember that each attribute must be followed by a comma to delimit one from another. You do not need to add a comma to the last attribute, since the closing brace will tell BibTeX that there are no more attributes for this entry, although you won't get an error if you do.

It can take a while to learn what the reference types are, and what fields each type has available (and which ones are required or optional, etc). So, look at this entry type reference and also this field reference for descriptions of all the fields. It may be worth bookmarking or printing these pages so that they are easily at hand when you need them. Much of the information contained therein is repeated in the following table for your convenience.

articlebookbookletinbookincollectioninproceedings ≈ conferencemanualmastersthesis, phdthesismiscproceedingstech reportunpublished
addressooooooooo
annote
author+*o++o+o++
booktitle++
chaptero
crossref
editionoooo
editor*ooo
howpublishedoo
institution+
journal+
key
monthoooooooooooo
noteooooooooooo+
numberooooooo
organizationooo
pagesooo
publisher+++oo
school+
seriesooooo
title++++++++o+++
typeoooo
volumeoooooo
year++o+++o+o++o

+ Required fields, o Optional fields

Authors[edit]

BibTeX can be quite clever with names of authors. It can accept names in forename surname or surname, forename. I personally use the former, but remember that the order you input them (or any data within an entry for that matter) is customizable and so you can get BibTeX to manipulate the input and then output it however you like. If you use the forename surname method, then you must be careful with a few special names, where there are compound surnames, for example "John von Neumann". In this form, BibTeX assumes that the last word is the surname, and everything before is the forename, plus any middle names. You must therefore manually tell BibTeX to keep the 'von' and 'Neumann' together. This is achieved easily using curly braces. So the final result would be "John {von Neumann}". This is easily avoided with the surname, forename, since you have a comma to separate the surname from the forename.

Secondly, there is the issue of how to tell BibTeX when a reference has more than one author. This is very simply done by putting the keyword and in between every author. As we can see from another example:

@book{goossens93,author="Michel Goossens and Frank Mittelbach and Alexander Samarin",title="The LaTeX Companion",year="1993",publisher="Addison-Wesley",address="Reading, Massachusetts"}

This book has three authors, and each is separated as described. Of course, when BibTeX processes and outputs this, there will only be an 'and' between the penultimate and last authors, but within the .bib file, it needs the ands so that it can keep track of the individual authors.

Standard templates[edit]

Be careful if you copy the following templates, the % sign is not valid to comment out lines in bibtex files. If you want to comment out a line, you have to put it outside the entry.

@article 
An article from a magazine or a journal.
  • Required fields: author, title, journal, year.
  • Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note.
@article{Xarticle,author="",title="",journal="",%volume="",%number="",%pages="",year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@book 
A published book
  • Required fields: author/editor, title, publisher, year.
  • Optional fields: volume/number, series, address, edition, month, note.
@book{Xbook,author="",title="",publisher="",%volume="",%number="",%series="",%address="",%edition="",year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@booklet 
A bound work without a named publisher or sponsor.
  • Required fields: title.
  • Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note.
@booklet{Xbooklet,%author="",title="",%howpublished="",%address="",%year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@conference 
Equal to inproceedings
  • Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
@conference{Xconference,author="",title="",booktitle="",%editor="",%volume="",%number="",%series="",%pages="",%address="",year="XXXX",%month="",%publisher="",%note="",}
@inbook 
A section of a book without its own title.
  • Required fields: author/editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year.
  • Optional fields: volume/number, series, type, address, edition, month, note.
@inbook{Xinbook,author="",editor="",title="",chapter="",pages="",publisher="",%volume="",%number="",%series="",%type="",%address="",%edition="",year="",%month="",%note="",}
@incollection 
A section of a book having its own title.
  • Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edition, month, note.
@incollection{Xincollection,author="",title="",booktitle="",publisher="",%editor="",%volume="",%number="",%series="",%type="",%chapter="",%pages="",%address="",%edition="",year="",%month="",%note="",}
@inproceedings 
An article in a conference proceedings.
  • Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
@inproceedings{Xinproceedings,author="",title="",booktitle="",%editor="",%volume="",%number="",%series="",%pages="",%address="",%organization="",%publisher="",year="",%month="",%note="",}
@manual 
Technical manual
  • Required fields: title.
  • Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note.
@manual{Xmanual,title="",%author="",%organization="",%address="",%edition="",year="",%month="",%note="",}
@mastersthesis 
Master's thesis
  • Required fields: author, title, school, year.
  • Optional fields: type (eg. "diploma thesis"), address, month, note.
@mastersthesis{Xthesis,author="",title="",school="",%type="diplomathesis",%address="",year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@misc 
Template useful for other kinds of publication
  • Required fields: none
  • Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note.
@misc{Xmisc,%author="",%title="",%howpublished="",%year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@phdthesis 
Ph.D. thesis
  • Required fields: author, title, year, school.
  • Optional fields: address, month, keywords, note.
@phdthesis{Xphdthesis,author="",title="",school="",%address="",year="",%month="",%keywords="",%note="",}
@proceedings 
The proceedings of a conference.
  • Required fields: title, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
@proceedings{Xproceedings,title="",%editor="",%volume="",%number="",%series="",%address="",%organization="",%publisher="",year="",%month="",%note="",}
@techreport 
Technical report from educational, commercial or standardization institution.
  • Required fields: author, title, institution, year.
  • Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note.
@techreport{Xtreport,author="",title="",institution="",%type="",%number="",%address="",year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@unpublished 
An unpublished article, book, thesis, etc.
  • Required fields: author, title, note.
  • Optional fields: month, year.
@unpublished{Xunpublished,author="",title="",%year="",%month="",note="",}

Non-standard templates[edit]

@patent
BibTeX entries can be exported from Google Patents.
(see Cite Patents with Bibtex for an alternative)
@collection
@electronic
@Unpublished
For citing arXiv.org papers in a REVTEX-style article
(see REVTEX Author's guide)

Preserving case of letters[edit]

In the event that BibTeX has been set by the chosen style not to preserve all capitalization within titles, problems can occur, especially if you are referring to proper nouns, or acronyms. To tell BibTeX to keep them, use the good old curly braces around the letter in question, (or letters, if it's an acronym) and all will be well! It is even possible that lower-case letters may need to be preserved - for example if a chemical formula is used in a style that sets a title in all caps or small caps, or if "pH" is to be used in a style that capitalises all first letters.

However, avoid putting the whole title in curly braces, as it will look odd if a different capitalization format is used:

For convenience though, many people simply put double curly braces, which may help when writing scientific articles for different magazines, conferences with different BibTex styles that do sometimes keep and sometimes not keep the capital letters:

As an alternative, try other BibTex styles or modify the existing. The approach of putting only relevant text in curly brackets is the most feasible if using a template under the control of a publisher, such as for journal submissions. Using curly braces around single letters is also to be avoided if possible, as it may mess up the kerning, especially with biblatex,[1] so the first step should generally be to enclose single words in braces.

A few additional examples[edit]

Below you will find a few additional examples of bibliography entries. The first one covers the case of multiple authors in the Surname, Firstname format, and the second one deals with the incollection case.

@article{AbedonHymanThomas2003,author="Abedon, S. T. and Hyman, P. and Thomas, C.",year="2003",title="Experimental examination of bacteriophage latent-period evolution as a response to bacterial availability",journal="Applied and Environmental Microbiology",volume="69",pages="7499--7506"}@incollection{Abedon1994,author="Abedon, S. T.",title="Lysis and the interaction between free phages and infected cells",pages="397--405",booktitle="Molecular biology of bacteriophage T4",editor="Karam, Jim D. Karam and Drake, John W. and Kreuzer, Kenneth N. and Mosig, Gisela and Hall, Dwight and Eiserling, Frederick A. and Black, Lindsay W. and Kutter, Elizabeth and Carlson, Karin and Miller, Eric S. and Spicer, Eleanor",publisher="ASM Press, Washington DC",year="1994"}

If you have to cite a website you can use @misc, for example:

@misc{website:fermentas-lambda,author="Fermentas Inc.",title="Phage Lambda: description \& restriction map",month="November",year="2008",url="http://www.fermentas.com/techinfo/nucleicacids/maplambda.htm"}

The note field comes in handy if you need to add unstructured information, for example that the corresponding issue of the journal has yet to appear:

@article{blackholes,author="Rabbert Klein",title="Black Holes and Their Relation to Hiding Eggs",journal="Theoretical Easter Physics",publisher="Eggs Ltd.",year="2010",note="(to appear)"}

Getting current LaTeX document to use your .bib file[edit]

At the end of your LaTeX file (that is, after the content, but before ), you need to place the following commands:

\bibliographystyle{plain}\bibliography{sample1,sample2,...,samplen}% Note the lack of whitespace between the commas and the next bib file.

Bibliography styles are files recognized by BibTeX that tell it how to format the information stored in the file when processed for output. And so the first command listed above is declaring which style file to use. The style file in this instance is (which comes as standard with BibTeX). You do not need to add the .bst extension when using this command, as it is assumed. Despite its name, the plain style does a pretty good job (look at the output of this tutorial to see what I mean).

The second command is the one that actually specifies the file you wish to use. The ones I created for this tutorial were called , , . . ., , but once again, you don't include the file extension. At the moment, the file is in the same directory as the LaTeX document too. However, if your .bib file was elsewhere (which makes sense if you intend to maintain a centralized database of references for all your research), you need to specify the path as well, e.g or (if the file is in the parent directory of the document that calls it).

Now that LaTeX and BibTeX know where to look for the appropriate files, actually citing the references is fairly trivial. The is the command you need, making sure that the ref_key corresponds exactly to one of the entries in the .bib file. If you wish to cite more than one reference at the same time, do the following: .

Why won't LaTeX generate any output?[edit]

The addition of BibTeX adds extra complexity for the processing of the source to the desired output. This is largely hidden from the user, but because of all the complexity of the referencing of citations from your source LaTeX file to the database entries in another file, you actually need multiple passes to accomplish the task. This means you have to run LaTeX a number of times. Each pass will perform a particular task until it has managed to resolve all the citation references. Here's what you need to type (into command line):

    (Extensions are optional, if you put them note that the bibtex command takes the AUX file as input.)

    After the first LaTeX run, you will see errors such as:

    LaTeX Warning: Citation `lamport94' on page 1 undefined on input line 21. ... LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.

    The next step is to run bibtex on that same LaTeX source (or more precisely the corresponding AUX file, however not on the actual .bib file) to then define all the references within that document. You should see output like the following:

    This is BibTeX, Version 0.99c (Web2C 7.3.1) The top-level auxiliary file: latex_source_code.aux The style file: plain.bst Database file #1: sample.bib

    The third step, which is invoking LaTeX for the second time will see more errors like "". Don't be alarmed, it's almost complete. As you can guess, all you have to do is follow its instructions, and run LaTeX for the third time, and the document will be output as expected, without further problems.

    If you want a pdf output instead of a dvi output you can use instead of as follows:

      (Extensions are optional, if you put them note that the bibtex command takes the AUX file as input.)

      Note that if you are editing your source in vim and attempt to use command mode and the current file shortcut (%) to process the document like this:

        You will get an error similar to this:

          It appears that the file extension is included by default when the current file command (%) is executed. To process your document from within vim, you must explicitly name the file without the file extension for bibtex to work, as is shown below:

          1. (without file extension, it looks for the AUX file as mentioned above)

          However, it is much easier to install the Vim-LaTeX plugin from here. This allows you to simply type \ll when not in insert mode, and all the appropriate commands are automatically executed to compile the document. Vim-LaTeX even detects how many times it has to run pdflatex, and whether or not it has to run bibtex. This is just one of the many nice features of Vim-LaTeX, you can read the excellent Beginner's Tutorial for more about the many clever shortcuts Vim-LaTeX provides.

          Another option exists if you are running Unix/Linux or any other platform where you have make. Then you can simply create a Makefile and use vim's make command or use make in shell. The Makefile would then look like this:

          latex_source_code.pdf: latex_source_code.tex latex_source_code.bib pdflatex latex_source_code.tex bibtex latex_source_code.aux pdflatex latex_source_code.tex pdflatex latex_source_code.tex

          Including URLs in bibliography[edit]

          As you can see, there is no field for URLs. One possibility is to include Internet addresses in field of or field of , , :

          Note the usage of command to ensure proper appearance of URLs.

          Another way is to use special field and make bibliography style recognise it.

          You need to use in the first case or in the second case.

          Styles provided by Natbib (see below) handle this field, other styles can be modified using urlbst program. Modifications of three standard styles (plain, abbrv and alpha) are provided with urlbst.

          If you need more help about URLs in bibliography, visit FAQ of UK List of TeX.

          Customizing bibliography appearance[edit]

          One of the main advantages of BibTeX, especially for people who write many research papers, is the ability to customize your bibliography to suit the requirements of a given publication. You will notice how different publications tend to have their own style of formatting references, to which authors must adhere if they want their manuscripts published. In fact, established journals and conference organizers often will have created their own bibliography style (.bst file) for those users of BibTeX, to do all the hard work for you.

          It can achieve this because of the nature of the .bib database, where all the information about your references is stored in a structured format, but nothing about style. This is a common theme in LaTeX in general, where it tries as much as possible to keep content and presentation separate.

          A bibliography style file () will tell LaTeX how to format each attribute, what order to put them in, what punctuation to use in between particular attributes etc. Unfortunately, creating such a style by hand is not a trivial task. Which is why (also known as custom-bib) is the tool we need.

          can be used to automatically generate a .bst file based on your needs. It is very simple, and actually asks you a series of questions about your preferences. Once complete, it will then output the appropriate style file for you to use.

          It should be installed with the LaTeX distribution (otherwise, you can download it) and it's very simple to initiate. At the command line, type:

          latex makebst

          LaTeX will find the relevant file and the questioning process will begin. You will have to answer quite a few (although, note that the default answers are pretty sensible), which means it would be impractical to go through an example in this tutorial. However, it is fairly straight-forward. And if you require further guidance, then there is a comprehensive manual available. I'd recommend experimenting with it and seeing what the results are when applied to a LaTeX document.

          If you are using a custom built .bst file, it is important that LaTeX can find it! So, make sure it's in the same directory as the LaTeX source file, unless you are using one of the standard style files (such as plain or plainnat, that come bundled with LaTeX - these will be automatically found in the directories that they are installed. Also, make sure the name of the file you want to use is reflected in the command (but don't include the extension!).

          Localizing bibliography appearance[edit]

          When writing documents in languages other than English, you may find it desirable to adapt the appearance of your bibliography to the document language. This concerns words such as editors, and, or in as well as a proper typographic layout. The package can be used here. For example, to layout the bibliography in German, add the following to the header:

          \usepackage[fixlanguage]{babelbib}\selectbiblanguage{german}

          Alternatively, you can layout each bibliography entry according to the language of the cited document:

          The language of an entry is specified as an additional field in the BibTeX entry:

          @article{mueller08,%...language={german}}

          For to take effect, a bibliography style supported by it - one of , , , , , and - must be used:

          \bibliographystyle{babplain}\bibliography{sample}

          Showing unused items[edit]

          Usually LaTeX only displays the entries which are referred to with . It's possible to make uncited entries visible:

          \nocite{Name89}% Show Bibliography entry of Name89\nocite{*}% Show all Bib-entries

          Getting bibliographic data[edit]

          Many online databases provide bibliographic data in BibTeX-Format, making it easy to build your own database. For example, Google Scholar offers the option to return properly formatted output, which can also be turned on in the settings page.

          One should be alert to the fact that bibliographic databases are frequently the product of several generations of automatic processing, and so the resulting BibTex code is prone to a variety of minor errors, especially in older entries.

          Helpful tools[edit]

          See also: w:en:Comparison of reference management software
          • BibDesk BibDesk is a bibliographic reference manager for Mac OS X. It features a very usable user interface and provides a number of features like smart folders based on keywords and live tex display.
          • BibSonomy — A free social bookmark and publication management system based on BibTeX.
          • BibTeXSearch BibTeXSearch is a free searchable BibTeX database spanning millions of academic records.
          • Bibtex Editor - An online BibTeX entry generator and bibliography management system. Possible to import and export Bibtex files.
          • Bibwiki Bibwiki is a Specialpage for MediaWiki to manage BibTeX bibliographies. It offers a straightforward way to import and export bibliographic records.
          • cb2Bib The cb2Bib is a tool for rapidly extracting unformatted, or unstandardized bibliographic references from email alerts, journal Web pages, and PDF files.
          • Citavi Commercial software (with size-limited free demo version) which even searches libraries for citations and keeps all your knowledge in a database. Export of the database to all kinds of formats is possible. Works together with MS Word and Open Office Writer. Moreover plug ins for browsers and Acrobat Reader exist to automatically include references to your project.
          • CiteULike CiteULike is a free online service to organise academic papers. It can export citations in BibTeX format, and can "scrape" BibTeX data from many popular websites.

          Frequently Asked Questions

          General

          Where is my data stored? Is it safe? Can I get it out again?

          Your library (reference data, notes, folders, labels) is stored safely in our database. The data is stored redundantly on multiple servers and we keep continuous backups in a completely different data center. You can export your library in common file formats (RIS and BibTeX) for use with other software. In addition, you can download all your data in machine readable JSON format.

          Your PDF files and all other files in your library are stored on Google Drive, Google's cloud storage service. Using the Google Drive client for Mac and Windows you can keep a backup of all your files on your local hard disk.

          Where can I run Paperpile? Does it run on Firefox/Safari?

          Paperpile is fully supported on Chrome for Mac OS X, Windows, Linux and Chrome OS. It also known to run on the open-source Chromium browser. Since Paperpile uses advanced features of the Chrome platform, it is not available on other browsers.

          What about my tablet?

          You can read your PDFs through the Google Drive app that is available in the iOS App Store and in the Android Play Store.

          Use the "Star" feature to compile your reading list. Starred papers will show up in a dedicated folder in your Google Drive so that you can easily find them.

          Dedicated mobile apps are planned. Subscribe to our newsletter or follow us on Twitter for announcements.

          I'm missing feature X, will you add it?

          Please be patient, Paperpile has just started and we will add features continuously. Some of the most frequently requested features that are on our roadmap: Shared folders (added 1/2014, see blog post), full-text PDF search, PDF annotations, Word plugin.

          I'm having problems running Paperpile or found a bug, what do I do?

          If you experience problems first read our guides and our troubleshooting page, which cover the most common issues. Also try to reload the Paperpile tab and/or restart Chrome; this can help solve some temporary problems.

          If you think you have found a bug please contact support@paperpile.com

           

          Using Paperpile

          Can I filter my papers by multiple criteria?

          Yes. Use the key when clicking on a folder or label to add additional filters.

          How does Paperpile search my library? Can I choose a specific field to search?

          Paperpile searches within most textual data fields from your papers including title, abstract, author names, journal, publication year, notes, and identifiers (DOI, PMID, etc.). Searching within a specific field is not currently supported, but you can filter your library by a specific author, year or journal name by clicking on the author / journal / year from an item in your library.

           

          File syncing

          Where are my files stored?

          If you import a file to Paperpile a local copy will be stored within Chrome. This allows you to quickly view your files without re-downloading them every time. If you enable syncing to Google Drive, your files will be stored in the folder 'Paperpile' in your Google Drive space. Once synced, your files can be accessed when you run Paperpile on different computers or for reading on a mobile device.

          Can I change how files are organized in Google Drive?

          Files are organized in subfolders sorted alphabetically by the first author's last name. At the moment it is not possible to customize this structure (many users wish to use the same folders / labels created in Paperpile). This limitation is mainly for technical reasons, and we hope to offer this highly requested feature in the future.

          Tip: Starred papers are organized in a special folder, which is useful for example to create a reading list for quick access on your mobile device.

          I already have my PDFs in Google Drive, can I import them directly from there?

          No. For privacy reasons Paperpile can only access files that were uploaded by Paperpile and are stored in the Paperpile folder. So Paperpile can't access your PDFs that you already have in some other location in your Google Drive. We suggest to sync the files to your local hard drive and upload them again from there.

          What can I do if my files are not synced correctly?

          In most cases your files will be synced completely automatically and there is no manual action required. If you run into problems, check out our file syncing guide.

           

          Google Docs integration

          These are a few commonly asked questions about the Google Docs integration. To learn how to use the Google Docs plug-in, view our guide on Writing papers in Google Docs.

          How does it work? Where are my citations stored?

          When you cite an article in a Google Doc, the citation data is copied from your personal library to a separate library created just for that document. When you choose a citation style and click Paperpile will format the citations, create a bibliography, and re-insert the formatted text into your document.

          You can seamlessly collaborate with other Paperpile users on a single document, adding citations and seeing each others' changes in real time. And because all references are stored in a central library, there's no need to worry about keeping everyone's personal libraries in sync — it just works.

          If you work with collaborators who aren't yet using Paperpile, they can still help edit the manuscript and view a document's citations: each citation and bibliography item links to a page where you can view / edit the citation.

          What happens if I cite something and then my collaborator tries to format the document? Will it still work?

          Yes! Any author with Paperpile can format the entire manuscript without any trouble. Since every citation is added to the same document library, all of the data required to format a document is stored with the document rather than in each user's personal library.

          Paperpile does not have a citation style for my journal. What can I do?

          Paperpile uses the Citation Style Language (CSL) to format citations and supports thousands of different journal styles maintained at citationstyles.org. If there is no style for a particular journal, chances are that there are identical or very similar styles you can use. To find the right style you can use "search by example" tool: http://editor.citationstyles.org/searchByExample

           

          Plans and pricing

          How does the subscription work?

          It's easy. Pick a plan and pay securely with any major credit card. Your trial account will be upgraded immediately.

          Your credit card is charged annually as long as your subscription is active. You can cancel at any time, and we won't charge your credit card again.

          How do I buy a group license?

          Choose a plan and enter 2 or more users in the subscription form. We will send you a license key valid for the desired number of accounts — share this key with your colleagues to activate their accounts. If you need to add more users, you can view or change the number of users at any time using the license dashboard.

          What about site licenses?

          Paperpile supports IP address-based and Google Apps for Education site license arrangements. Please contact support@paperpile.com for more information.

          Can I pay with PayPal or via invoice?

          Yes. Contact support@paperpile.com with the plan you want to subscribe to. We will send you a license key and an invoice you can pay with PayPal or any other way you prefer.

           

          Tutorials & Guides

          Getting started

          First thing's first — you'll want to add some papers to your new library to learn how to organize your papers and work effectively with Paperpile. Read on for some tips on how to quickly make the most out of Paperpile.

          Note: if you already have a library from Mendeley, EndNote, or other software, see our guide below on how to Import your library and PDFs.

          Add papers

          The first thing to do with an empty library is to fill it up with papers relevant to your work. Paperpile make this easy with three ways to find and add articles from the web:

          • Click to search online directly from Paperpile or upload PDFs from your hard drive.

            Tip: to quickly upload PDFs, just drag and drop from your file manager into the Paperpile window.

          • Use your browser to search for articles on Google Scholar, PubMed or ArXiv and click the import buttons .
          • Click the Paperpile button in your browser toolbar to import from hundreds of supported publishers' sites. A green arrow appears on the button when you're viewing a supported site (For an example visit doi.org/10.1038/nature10530).

          Get organized

          Next, add some folders and labels to help keep things tidy. Click the New Folder button to add a new folder. You can rearrange your folders by dragging (labels are sorted automatically).

          Drag a paper into a folder using the drag handle on the left side of the paper, or use the toolbar buttons to organize many papers at once.

          Cite, copy, paste

          You can quickly copy and paste formatted citations using the copy button . Choose between copying the plain citation string, a rich-text version with abstract & links (good for emailing), or the Bibtex data for manuscript preparation.

          What's next

          Where to go from here? You can learn about some of Paperpile's other unique features by viewing our guides on how to Write papers in Google Docs and Sync your files with Google Drive.

          But more importantly, Paperpile makes reference management easy so your next step can be to get back to doing what you do best — research!

           

          Import your library & PDFs

          Ready to make the switch? Easily import your existing reference library from most popular software directly into Paperpile — here you'll find complete instructions for migrating from Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, EndNote, Citavi, or other software. Or, just add your PDFs directly and let Paperpile organize them for you!

          Mendeley

          If your library is fully synced online: If you keep all your articles and PDFs synced in Mendeley, Paperpile can automatically import your Mendeley library and PDFs from the web with one click. Open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and then follow the on-screen options.

          If your library is not synced: Your Mendeley library and PDFs can still be imported with a few easy steps:

          1. Select all papers in your Mendeley library and choose . Change the format to RIS – Research Information Systems and save to your desktop (example).

          2. Find the folder where your Mendeley PDFs are stored by right-clicking on an item with a PDF and choosing . Navigate to the folder that holds all of your Mendeley PDFs, and keep that folder open for the next step.

          3. In Paperpile open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and add both your exported RIS file and your entire Mendeley PDF folder to the upload dialog. Click Start upload to begin.

          4. Paperpile will import your library and attach all existing PDFs to their correct articles when possible. When the import is complete, double-check any articles marked as incomplete or duplicates to help keep your library clean.

          Zotero

          If your Zotero library is synced online: Paperpile can automatically import your Zotero library and attachments from the web with one click. Open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and then follow the on-screen options. Note: Private group libraries will not be imported when "Accept Defaults" is selected. In order to import also private group libraries click "Change Permissions" and select in "Default Group Permissions" the "Read Only" option.

          If your library is not synced: Import your Zotero library and PDFs with a few simple steps:

          1. Export your Zotero library to a new folder on your desktop. Choose and select RIS format with all options checked (example).

          2. In Paperpile open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and add your exported Zotero folder to the upload dialog. Click Start upload to begin.

          3. Paperpile will import your Zotero library and attach each PDF or attachment to its correct article where possible. When import is complete, double-check any articles marked as incomplete or duplicates to help keep your library clean.

          Papers

          Import your Papers library and PDFs into Paperpile with just a few clicks:

          1. First, export your Papers library with the command . Save your entire library to a file on your desktop (example).

          2. Now locate your Papers Library directory. Go to in the Papers menu. The location of your library will be listed in the Library tab of the Preferences window. Go to the library folder and find the Files folder within it. Keep this Files folder open for the next step.

          3. In Paperpile open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and add both your exported RIS file and your entire Files folder to the upload dialog. Click Start upload to begin.

          4. Paperpile will import your library and attach all existing PDFs to their correct articles when possible. When the import is complete, double-check any articles marked as incomplete or duplicates to help keep your library clean.

          EndNote

          Any EndNote library, including attached PDFs, can be easily imported into Paperpile with just a few steps.

          • First, open your EndNote library and export it to your computer in RefMan (RIS) format: click , choose Save as type "XML", and under output style choose "Select Another Style" (example). This will open up a new dialog; choose EndNote Export. Make sure to uncheck "export selected references" to ensure that your entire library is exported (example). Click Save to save this file to your desktop.

          • Second, find the ".Data" folder that holds your library's PDFs. For most libraries, EndNote creates a folder in the same directory as your EndNote library file. It has the same name as your library with the suffix ".Data" appended (example). Keep this folder open for the next step.

          • Back in Paperpile, open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and add both your exported RIS file and the entire ".Data" folder to the upload dialog. You can add them either by dragging them onto the drop area, or by using the "Choose file(s)/Choose a folder" buttons. Once you see your RIS and folder in the list of selected filed, click Start upload to begin.

          • Paperpile will import your EndNote library and attach all existing PDFs to their correct articles when possible. When the import is complete, double-check any articles marked as incomplete or duplicates to help keep your library clean.

          Citavi

          Citavi 5 and Citavi 6 libraries can be easily imported into Paperpile with just a few steps.

          • First, open Citavi and create a backup of your project. You will find this option in the menu.

          • Second, locate the backup on your computer. It's a file with the file ending with or . The backup file is actually a file. In order to extract it, replace the Citavi file ending with .

          • Once, the file is extracted, you should see or files. These files can directly be uploaded to Paperpile.

          • Back in Paperpile, open the "Add Papers" menu, choose and add the extracted or files to the upload dialog. Click Start upload to begin.

          Other reference managers

          If your reference manager supports exporting to either Bibtex or RIS format, you can simply export your library to a file and import to Paperpile using the function.

          If you cannot export your library to a standard file format, Paperpile may be able to extract metadata from your PDFs themselves — see below.

          Unorganized PDFs

          In many cases, useful reference metadata can be extracted even from a collection of unorganized PDFs. Simply drag and drop some files into the window (example) and click Start upload to begin.

          Paperpile will parse each PDF and use all detectable metadata (including data fetched online from databases like PubMed) to import the article into your library. A message will be displayed for any errors or warnings encountered during the import process.

          Note: if a PDF matches up exactly with an existing item in your library, Paperpile will automatically attach the PDF to that item instead of adding a duplicate entry.

           

          Write papers in Google Docs

          Paperpile's Google Docs integration is so simple that most users need no introduction — just create a new document and start writing! For those who like to be prepared, here is an overview of the main features and tips for collaborating on academic documents with Paperpile and Google Docs.

          If you are having trouble with the Docs plug-in, visit the troubleshooting page for tips on how to solve the most common issues.

          Inserting a citation

          To insert a citation, either click the Paperpile button in the toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut (on Linux or Windows use ) to open the citation window:

          Start typing to search within your library. Paperpile will search within the title, keywords, abstract, etc. of all papers in your library, the same as when you search from the main Paperpile interface (example). Choose a result to add it to the current citation:

          To add another item just start searching again. Or, click on any of the citation tags to edit advanced options (see Advanced options for citations below). When you have finished creating a citation, click Add citation to add it to your document.

          The citation is inserted into the Google document as a link with placeholder text, e.g. . Note that this is not the final formatted citation; see below for instructions on Formatting a bibliography.

          Advanced options for citations

          Clicking directly on a citation tag opens up a panel with details and more advanced options:

          The upper part of the panel shows a familiar overview of the citation metadata with a link to open the item in Paperpile.

          Below that are three advanced citation options:

          • Location / page numbers: choose from a range of location types (see a partial list) to use when citing a specifc page, chapter, or book from within a larger work. Example: .

          • Prefix / suffix: Add arbitrary text to be included before or after the inline citation. Examples: and .

          • Suppress author: this option causes citation styles to not display the author name within inline citations. When using a parenthetical citation style, this allows you to include just the year in parentheses. Example: instead of the usual .

          Formatting a bibliography

          After adding or editing a citation, Paperpile can reformat your document and generate the bibliography with one click. Simply choose to proceed. (Note: you will need to give permission to the plug-in the first time you format a document. This will only happen once.)

          To choose a different citation style, open the citation style window with :

          Search for the journal or publisher whose style you would like to use, and a preview will show in the bottom of the window. Click Update to update the citation style and reformat the document to see the changes.

          Collaborative editing

          You can edit a Paperpile-enhanced Google document with any number of collaborators, whether or not they already use Paperpile. Just click the Share button in the upper-right corner of the screen and choose who to share your document with.

          If you share the document with collaborators using Paperpile, they will be able to add new citations and reformat the document without trouble (see our FAQ entry on how collaborative citations work). For anyone not using Paperpile, citations and bibliography items will link to a web-based view where you can edit or update the data for a given item.

          Important: Citing a document from your personal Paperpile library will create a local copy specific to the Google Document. This copy will be updated if you update the original copy in your library. However, as soon you or someone else edits the local copy of a Google Document any subsequent changes you make to the original copy in your library will not update (and thus overwrite) the local changes. Also, changes made to the local copy by yourself or a collaborator will never propagate back to your library.

          Citation styles

          Paperpile supports the popular "citation style language" CSL with more then 8,000 citation styles available from citationstyles.org. We regularly update the citation styles in Paperpile so that you always get the newest styles and updates.

          To change the citation style in a Google Document go to and search for the name of your style.

          If you can't find your style you have two options: (i) find an identical or very similar style or (ii) create your own style. In both cases you can use the citation style editor available at editor.citationstyles.org. This free web-tool allows you to find styles and to modify existing styles to your needs.

          If you have create your own CSL style, download the CSL file to your harddisk and upload it to Paperpile in . You can then select this style in your Google document as described before.

          DOIs and URLs in your citations

          For most reference types Paperpile lets the citation style control how to display DOIs and URLs.

          However, for print articles Paperpile does not show DOIs or URLs by default. More precisely, citations of types "Journal article" and "News article" with the field "pages" set will not include DOIs or URLs.

          To override this behavior, activate the option "Always include DOI and URLs". This option will show DOIs as specified by the citation style. Note, that some citation styles don't support DOIs and this option (despite its name) cannot change that. You may need to adapt the behaviour of the citation style by editing the CSL file (see above).

          You can store multiple URLs in the field "URLs". Paperpile will always use the first in citations.

          Known issues

          • You can only use the Google docs plugin with the same Google account from which you signed up to Paperpile. If you have documents owned by your non-Paperpile Google Account, share and edit them with your Paperpile-linked account.

           

          Sync your files with Google Drive

          Here is some more information about how synchronization of your files to Google Drive works. Check out also the FAQs about syncing.

          What you need to know about the Google Drive sync

          • Google Drive syncing is initially turned off. Enable sync by clicking on the Drive icon in the top right of the Paperpile tab.
          • Once enabled, all syncing takes place in the background and no manual action is required. The Drive icon indicates the current status of the sync process:
          • To check if a file is synced, open the file panel by clicking the paperclip symbol . The drive icon indicates the sync status of a file:

          • The contents in Google drive always reflects your Paperpile library. Make any changes (e.g. delete or rename a file) directly in Paperpile, not in Google Drive — this is the safest way to make sure you don't see unexpected results. However, Paperpile is smart and works hard to automatically fix any inconsistencies encountered during sync.
          • Files are arranged in folders by the first letter of the first author's last name. All files are prefixed with 'Author year' of the reference they belong to (e.g. 'Crow and Kimura 1970'). The main PDF for a reference is renamed with the title, while all supplementary files maintain their original filename (plus the 'Author year' prefix).

          Troubleshooting

          • The drive icon says "Sync has been disabled because of errors": Normally, if there are problems syncing your files (e.g. Google's server is temporarily overloaded), Paperpile will automatically try again and there is no action required from you. However, if a problem persists and several sync attempts fail, syncing will be disabled. Wait some time and click the icon to re-enable sync and start a new attempt.
          • One or more files did not get properly synced: If a file is not synced, click 'Start sync now' in the drive menu on the top right of the screen. That will force a re-sync of all your files. It does not re-upload any files unless necessary, so it should finish within 1-2 minutes. If the sync is still not successful, read on and try the next tip. Also keep in mind that files bigger than 20Mb are currently not synced.
          • The sync process hangs and the Drive icons keeps flashing forever: The Paperpile Chrome extension (which runs invisibly whenever Chrome is running) contains the code that actually syncs your files. Even if you reload the Paperpile application tab, it will not completely reset the file syncing. In the rare case that your sync is stuck for a long time, either restart Chrome completely or reload the extension.

           

          Share papers with colleagues

          Paperpile includes two simple yet powerful ways to share papers: share papers via link or email to quickly send articles to your colleagues, or create a shared folder to create shared lists of relevant references and PDFs with other Paperpile users.

          Sharing papers via link or email

          To quickly share papers, select some items from your library and click in the toolbar. The following dialog will appear:

          Your papers are ready to share — just copy the unique sharing link and send it to your colleagues. Everyone with the link can view the papers online (no Paperpile account is required).

          You can also enter an email address in the "Send an email" area to have Paperpile send an email on your behalf. To include a customized message or subject line, click "Add a message" below the email address field (example).

          When you email a paper with Paperpile your colleagues will receive a message listing the first few items and a link to the entire set of shared papers. If available, each paper includes a link to the publisher's website and to your personal copy of the PDF in Google Drive. For more details, see the how sharing works section below.

          Creating a shared folder

          Sharing with a link is quick and easy, but if you want to add or remove papers from a shared collection or collaborate on a shared reference list with other Paperpile users, then a shared folder is the way to go.

          Shared folders work just like regular folders in Paperpile, except that multiple users have access to the folder and can add and remove papers. Create shared folders for journal clubs, reading groups, or to collaboratively collect references for your next manuscript.

          To create a shared folder, click the button next to the area in the left pane. Alternatively, you can select a few items your library and choose :

          Paperpile will create a new folder and pre-populate it with your selected items (if applicable).

          Click "Manage sharing" to invite new collaborators. The following dialog will appear:

          Each shared folder gets a unique link to share — this can be shared with anyone, and provides a read-only view of the items in your folder. To give other Paperpile users the ability to add and remove items to and from your shared folder, add their email addresses to the "Invite collaborators" area.

          Click Save to update the folder's sharing settings. Email notifications will be sent, and your collaborators will see the shared folder the next time they open Paperpile.

          Note: when you add collaborators to a shared folder, use the same e-mail address they use for their Paperpile account. This is usually their personal or institutional GMail address. If you add someone using a non-Paperpile email address, they will show up in the access list without name or photo (example). To fix this, remove the non-Paperpile email and add their correct address.

          Working with shared folders

          Anyone with access to a shared folder can do the following:

          • Manage who has access: all collaborators on a shared folder have permission to add or remove collaborators through the "Manage Sharing" dialog. The only exception is that nobody can remove the folder's owner. Since all collaborators are given equal access, be sure to only invite people who you know and trust.
          • Add or remove papers to or from a folder: add papers easily by dragging one or more selected papers onto the shared folder, or alternatively by selecting one or more papers and choosing from the toolbar. To remove papers from a shared folder, make a selection and choose from the toolbar. You can remove any paper from a shared folder, including ones not added by you.
          • Add or remove subfolders: click the context menu next to a shared folder and choose to add a new folder below the selected folder.
          • Copy papers to your personal library: you may often want to take an article shared by a colleague and save a copy in your own library for future reading, organization or note-taking. Paperpile makes this easy by showing three different icons for papers in a shared folder:

            •    You added this paper to the shared folder. Click the icon to view it in your library.
            •    Another user has added this paper to the shared folder, so you may add a copy to your personal library. Click the button to copy a single paper, or select one or more papers and choose from the toolbar. Paperpile will copy the paper and any available attachments (learn how this works) to your personal Paperpile library.
            •    You have a copy of this paper in your library. Click the icon to view your copy of the paper.
          • Shown below is an example of three papers with three different states: added by you, added by another user, and added by another user with a linked copy in your library.

          More info: how Paperpile sharing works

          For those who would like to know more about how things work behind the scenes, here are a few relevant technical details behind Paperpile's sharing functionality:

          • Items are shared with a reference, not by copying: when you share a paper, Paperpile creates a reference to your personal library item, not a copy. This means that your collaborators will always see the latest version of the paper you added, just as it looks in your personal library: if you edit the title, add a note, or upload a PDF or supplementary file, all your changes will be immediately visible to everyone. However, this also means that if you delete an item from your library, it will no longer be available to your collaborators.
          • PDFs and attachments are shared via your Google Drive: When someone clicks "View PDF" on a shared paper or copies it to his or her personal library, Paperpile will generate a read-only link to your synced Google Drive file for viewing and downloading. This works the same as if you had chosen "Share with a link" from within the Google Drive interface and shared the link with your collaborators. Note: this only works if you have enabled sync and the given attachment has been successfully synced online.
          • Anonymous file downloads are restricted: Paperpile makes it easy to collaborate on shared reading lists and send relevant articles to your colleagues, but it is your responsibility to ensure that you do not facilitate illegal distribution of copyrighted works (see below). In practice, this means that you should be careful who you invite to shared folders and with whom you share a web link. To make sure no copyrighted material is made public accidentally, shared links are excluded from search engines and anonymous downloads of PDFs and other files are tracked and restricted at a reasonable limit.

          Sharing and copyright

          It is your responsibility to respect the intellectual property rights of the owners of any work that you organize within Paperpile. You may only share content with other users (including article PDFs, text, and supplementary files) if you have the right to do so. You can share papers if you are the copyright owner, have the copyright owner’s permission, are permitted to do so under your publishing agreement or your institution’s license agreement or under license from an Open Access database or under a Creative Commons license.

          For more information, be sure to read through our terms of service before using Paperpile's sharing features.

          Library proxy access

          You can download PDFs with restricted access while off-campus through a proxy connection provided by your institution or library.

          Select a proxy connection for your institution

          Go to Settings > Proxy Access. Search for your institution or library and click .

          Click to authenticate with the proxy server using your user name and password, library token or other authentication method your institution or library uses.

          You can verify that the connection works with

          Add a custom proxy connection

          If your institution or library is not in the list, ask your IT department or librarian for help. If your institution supports remote access via "EZProxy", they can provide you with a proxy URL, e.g. http://ezproxy.example.edu/login?url=$@. Note, the "$@" is a placeholder that tells Paperpile where to put the URL that should be accessed via the proxy server.

          Add this URL to the field URL, give your connection a name, e.g. "My university library" and click . Log in and verify that the connection is working (see above).

          Using library proxy connections

          If Paperpile can't access a PDF, Paperpile will re-try downloading it through your proxy connection. You can configure multiple connections and activate and de-activate connections right from the main screen using the proxy connection menu on the top right:

          Always make sure you are logged in to your proxy. Follow the "Login page" link in the proxy menu.

          Paperpile will show a warning if you have configured and activated a proxy but you are logged out.

          Important notes

          • A few instutitions have configured their proxy access in a way that makes it impossible to be used by Paperpile. In particular, EZProxy servers using "Proxy by Port" configurations are not supported. This legacy configuration is not not recommended by the developers of EZproxy. We encourage institutions to update their settings to "Proxy by Hostname" to make their proxy access more accessible.
          • Your institution might use other technologies for remote access than the "EZProxy" approach described here. Most popular are "VPN connections" or direct proxy servers. All these approaches are fully supported by Paperpile but need special programs or configuration of your computer. Please ask your library or IT department for more help.

           

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